APA 5th edition

Although the APA 5th edition referencing style is not currently used at the University of Portsmouth, we have archived this section of our referencing guides for the benefit of those who may require it for work they began using the 5th edition.

Please note that these guides will no longer be updated or revised, nor will new guides be produced for the APA 5th edition.

 

Article  This includes articles from journals, magazines and newspapers
 
Academic journal article  academic journals, also referred to as peer-reviewed or scholarly journals
    Academic journal article [from Print source]
    Academic journal article from a database: different from print version [from Electronic source]
    Academic journal article from a website: different from print version [from Electronic source]
    Academic journal article: same as print version [from Electronic source]
 
Magazine article  monthly and weekly magazines and trade publications
    Magazine article [from Print source]
 
Newspaper article  newspaper articles from national and regional newspapers, and obituaries
    Newspaper article [from Print source]
    Newspaper article from a database: different from print version [from Electronic source]
    Newspaper article from a website: different from print version [from Electronic source]
    Newspaper article: same as print version [from Electronic source]
 
Review  reviews of books, films, musical performances, and plays
    Review of a book [from Print source]
    Review of a film [from Print source]
    Review of a musical performance [from Print source]
    Review of a play [from Print source]
    Review of a radio programme [from Print source]
Book  whole books, book chapters, republished books, translated books, and entries in reference books such as dictionaries and encyclopaedias
 
Book in a language other than English  books written in languages using Latin or non-Latin characters
    Book in a language other than English [from Print source]
 
Book translated into English  non-English books translated into English
    Book translated into English [from Print source]
 
Book with author(s)  books with single or with multiple authors
    Book with multiple authors [from Print source]
    Book with single author [from Print source]
    E-book with author(s): different from print version [from Electronic source]
    E-book with author(s): same as print version [from Electronic source]
 
Book with corporate author  books where an organisation or company is identified as the author
    Book with corporate author [from Print source]
 
Book with editor(s)  books with a single or multiple editors
    Book with multiple editors [from Print source]
    Book with single editor [from Print source]
 
Book with no author or editor  books with no identifiable authors or editors
    Book with no author [from Print source]
 
Book with single author, editor  books (often classic texts) which have been republished with editorial work and possibly an introduction and/or notes by another person
    Book with single author, editor [from Print source]
 
Chapter in an edited book  books comprising chapters by different authors, with named editor(s)
    Chapter in an edited book [from Print source]
    Chapter in an edited e-book: same as print version [from Electronic source]
 
Entry with author(s) in a reference book  authored entries in dictionaries, encyclopaedias or other reference books with separate articles arranged in alphabetical or subject order
    Entry with author(s) in a reference book [from Electronic source]
    Entry with author(s) in a reference book [from Print source]
 
Entry with no author in a reference book  entries with no identifiable authors in dictionaries, encyclopaedias or other reference books with separate articles arranged in alphabetical or subject order
    Entry with no author in a reference book [from Electronic source]
    Entry with no author in a reference book [from Print source]
 
Republished book  classic texts republished in a new edition, with or without editorial essays and notes, but only where the original date of publication is clear
    Republished book [from Print source]
 
Sacred text
    Sacred text: Bible [from Print source]
    Sacred text: Qur'an [from Print source]
Cartographic material  atlases, charts and maps
 
Atlas  
    Atlas [from Print source]
 
Chart  
    Chart [from Print source]
 
Map  
    Map [from Print source]
Legal material  legal cases, of which the source may be law reports or transcripts, legislation such as statutes (also known as Acts) and statutory instruments. do not use for case comments (treat as articles) or parliamentary material (see separate section below).
 
EU law  EU cases and legislation (e.g. Human Rights cases) and legislation from the Official Journal of the European Union
   
EU case  This includes cases such as Human Rights cases
      Case: EU [from Print source]
      Case: EU Human Rights [from Print source]
   
EU legislation  legislation from the Official Journal of the European Union
      Legislation: EU [from Print source]
      Official Journal of the European Union [from Print source]
 
UK law  UK cases and UK legislation such as statutes (also known as Acts) and statutory instruments.
   
UK case  UK cases, of which the source may be law reports or transcripts, but not case comments (also known as case commentaries) which should be referenced as articles.
      Case [from Electronic source]
      Case [from Print source]
   
UK legislation  statutes (also known as Acts) and statutory instruments but not parliamentary material such as bills, command papers, explanantory notes to statutes or parliamentary debates from Hansard, which can be found listed under Parliamentary material
      Statute (Act) [from Electronic source]
      Statute (Act) [from Print source]
      Statute (Act) of the Northern Ireland Assembly [from Electronic source]
      Statute (Act) of the Northern Ireland Assembly [from Print source]
      Statute (Act) of the Scottish Parliament [from Electronic source]
      Statute (Act) of the Scottish Parliament [from Print source]
      Statutory Instrument [from Electronic source]
      Statutory Instrument [from Print source]
      Statutory Instrument of the Welsh Assembly [from Electronic source]
      Statutory Instrument of the Welsh Assembly [from Print source]
Non-recoverable material  unpublished personal and public communication
 
Personal communication  lecture notes, letters, memos, emails, unarchived online forums, telephone conversations, and interviews.
    Personal communication [from Direct communication]
   
Email  
      Email [from Direct communication]
   
Interview  
      Interview [from Direct communication]
 
Public communication  announcements, lectures, seminars and speeches
    Public communication [from Direct communication]
Non-text material  artworks, broadcast and streamed media programmes, computer software, DVD recordings, films, images, live performances, mobile applications, music, podcasts, tables, and video games
 
Artwork  e.g. calligraphy, installations, paintings, and sculptures
    Art work [from Audio visual source]
 
Broadcast or streamed media  radio and television programmes (of which the source may be BBC iPlayer, 4oD, Box of Broadcasts (BoB) etc.), podcasts, and streaming video (from YouTube)
   
Radio  published recordings of radio programmes, single episodes from radios series, and single radio programmes
     
Radio programme: published recording  
        Radio programme: published recording [from Audio visual source]
     
Radio: single episode from a series  
        Radio: single episode from a series [from Audio visual source]
     
Radio: single programme  
        Radio: single programme [from Audio visual source]
   
Streamed media  webcasts streamed directly from the internet (e.g. YouTube, BBC iPlayer or Box of Broadcasts etc.) or podcasts downloaded to computers and mobile devices
     
Podcast  audio or video files downloaded to computers or mobile devices
        Audio or video podcast [from Electronic source]
     
Webcast  streamed media watched or listened to directly from the internet, e.g. from BBC iPlayer, 4oD, YouTube, or Box of Broadcasts (BoB)
        Streaming video [from Electronic source]
   
Television  published recordings of television programmes, single episodes from television series, single television programmes, and whole television series
     
Television programme: published recording  DVD or video recording, with or without extra features
        Television programme: published recording [from Audio visual source]
     
Television series  A whole television series, rather than a episode from a series.
        Television series [from Audio visual source]
     
Television: single episode from a series  
        Television: single episode from a series [from Audio visual source]
     
Television: single programme  
 
CD-ROM  also DVD-ROM
    CD-ROM (compact disc, read-only memory) [from Electronic source]
 
Computer software  computer programs and programming languages
    Computer program or programming language [from Electronic source]
 
DVD or video recording  recordings which are directly published in this format and are not copies of films and TV broadcasts, such as training and promotional videos
    DVD or video recording [from Audio visual source]
 
Film  published recordings of films
    Film [from Audio visual source]
   
Film: published recording  DVD or video recording, with or without extra features
      Film: published recording [from Audio visual source]
 
Image, illustration or diagram  images, illustrations and diagrams from various sources
    Illustration or diagram in a book [from Print source]
    Image from a database [from Electronic source]
    Images from various sources [from Any media]
 
Live performance  dance, music and plays
   
Dance: live performance  
      Dance: live performance [from Direct communication]
   
Music: live performance  
      Music: live performance [from Direct communication]
   
Play: live performance  
      Play: live performance [from Direct communication]
 
Music  musical recordings and musical scores
   
Music recording  
      Music recording [from Audio visual source]
   
Musical score  
      Musical score [from Print source]
 
Table  tables which you have created by organising data obtained from one or more sources
    Table [from Print source]
 
Video game  games played on PCs and games consoles
    Video game [from Electronic source]
Parliamentary material  bills, command papers, explanantory notes to Acts of Parliament and parliamentary debates from Hansard but not legal material such as statutes (Acts) and statutory instruments (see legal material above)
 
Bill  
    Bill [from Electronic source]
    Bill [from Print source]
 
Command paper  
    Command paper [from Electronic source]
    Command paper [from Print source]
 
Explanatory Notes to Act of Parliament  
    Explanatory Notes to Act of Parliament [from Electronic source]
    Explanatory Notes to Act of Parliament [from Print source]
 
Hansard  
    Hansard [from Electronic source]
    Hansard [from Print source]
Report, paper or official publication  company reports, Law Commission reports, publications from Government departments, briefing or working papers, and market research reports.
  Report [from Electronic source]
  Report [from Print source]
 
Company report  includes annual reports
    Company report [from Print source]
 
Government publication  publications from Government departments
    Government department publication [from Print source]
 
Working paper  includes scientific and technical papers
    Briefing or working paper [from Print source]
Research material  includes conference papers, dissertations, and theses
 
Conference paper  conference papers in published proceedings, meetings, symposia, and unpublished conference papers
   
Conference paper: published  
      Conference paper: published [from Electronic source]
      Conference paper: published [from Print source]
   
Conference paper: unpublished  
      Conference paper: unpublished [from Print source]
 
Dissertation  undergraduate and postgraduate student dissertations
    Dissertation [from Print source]
 
Thesis  PhD theses
    Thesis [from Print source]
Social media  postings and comments which have been archived and are recoverable
 
Blog post or blog comment  
    Blog post [from Electronic source]
 
Message posted to an online forum or mailing list  
    Message posted to an online forum or mailing list [from Electronic source]
Webpage or website  specific webpages or whole websites.
 
Webpage  
    Webpage [from Electronic source]
 
Website  This format should only be used when referencing an entire website from the homepage onwards or if you are making a passing reference to a website in the text of your work. If you are referring to a specific webpage within a website then see guidance on how to reference a webpage
    Website [from Electronic source]
Other Sources  abstracts, advertisements, ephemera, internal documents, journals, manuscripts, patents, poetry, scripts and standards
 
Abstract  abstracts as original sources and from secondary sources
   
Abstract as an original source  
      Abstract as an original source [from Print source]
   
Abstract from a secondary source  
      Abstract from a secondary source [from Print source]
 
Advertisement  advertisements from magazines, newspapers, radio, and television
    Advertisement [from Any media]
 
Ephemera  things that are meant to be thrown away such as calendars, postcards, tradecards, greetings cards, manifestos, menus, tickets, playbills, and programmes
    Ephemera [from Print source]
 
Internal document  unpublished documents used within an organisation
    Internal document [from Print source]
    Intranet document [from Electronic source]
 
Journal  journal supplements, whole issues of journals, and special sections from journals
   
Journal: supplement  
      Journal supplement [from Print source]
   
Journal: whole or special issue  
      Journal: whole or special issue [from Print source]
 
Manuscript  
    Manuscript [from Print source]
 
Patent  
    Patent [from Print source]
 
Poetry  
    Poetry [from Any media]
 
Script  scripts from plays and films
    Script [from Electronic source]
 
Standard  includes British Standards
    Standard [from Electronic source]
    Standard [from Print source]