About Referencing@Portsmouth

The Referencing@Portsmouth website went live in September 2006 to meet the referencing needs of students and staff at the University of Portsmouth, UK. Initially the site provided advice solely on using the American Psychological Association (APA) referencing style as this is the main referencing format used at the University of Portsmouth. However, help with OSCOLA legal referencing and Vancouver biomedical referencing is also available.

Professionally qualified librarians employed by the University Library provide all the examples used within the site, basing the examples on official referencing manuals where possible.

Because members of the University need to reference some types of material not covered in the APA manual or website, we have developed additional guidance and examples (e.g. Hansard, musical scores) which stick as closely as possible to the spirit of APA.

Where examples are not covered in the official APA material, this is clearly indicated.

Sources used in the production of this website include:



UK, England and Wales, Scotland, Northern Ireland, and EU law:

International law::