Glossary of Terms & Phrases used in Referencing
This is short for American Psychological Association, and refers to one of the three systems or styles, for producing bibliographic references used in the University. This style is used by the APA, who produce a manual that is available in the library. There are printed guides available and online versions of these on the University Library website. This style was formerly referred to in the University as Harvard APA.
You may hear lecturers and others referring to Athens accounts. We no longer use them, but the name lingers on. An Athens personal account was a username/password combination that was used to control access to many (but not all) databases and electronic journals. Usually you only needed your Athens account if you wanted to access products from outside the university, but some databases asked you for it even for access from university computers. Like many other universities, Portsmouth has moved to an authentication system called Shibboleth, which allows you to use your network username and password (the ones given you to access university computers), rather than issuing a separate one solely for electronic resources (also sometimes referred to as an institution login).
See Accessing Electronic Resources for more information.
A bibliographic reference describes the information needed to identify and retrieve a publication. This would include items like author, title, publisher, place of publication, journal title, volume and part number. A bibliography/reference list can be said to be made up of bibliographic references. There are various different styles or systems for producing bibliographic references and your department will require you to use one of these when you write assignments. The main styles used in this University are called APA, OSCOLA and Vancouver.
In ordinary speech, a list of bibliographic references to works which can comprise books, book chapters, journals and articles on a particular subject as well as web sites, images and other media. You will often find a bibliography at the end of a book or journal article.
However, APA distinguishes between reference lists and bibliographies in the following way:
Reference lists provide the information necessary to identify each source used in the piece of work, but only those sources.
Bibliographies cite works for background or further reading, which may include descriptive notes (an annotated bibliography).
Articles written to APA standards are required to have reference lists, not bibliographies.
A reference to a specific piece of work which you may have paraphrased or quoted in an assignment, giving credit to the original author. Citations are brief identifying details written into the text of your assignment, and link to the full details of the work used which are found in the bibliography/reference list.
The process of referencing and acknowledging material, produced by other authors, which you have used as a source of information.
The system by which books are arranged in libraries, usually made up of a mixture of numbers and/or letters. This University Library uses Dewey Decimal Classification.
The numbers (and/or) letters by which books are shelved in libraries. Classmarks represent the subjects of books, and are a way of putting related subjects near to each other on library shelves. The University Library catalogue of books calls this a shelfmark.
An organization (e.g. a business, government agency, institution) considered to be the author of a work.
A DOI (Digital Object Identifier) is a unique alphanumeric string assigned by a registration agency to identify content and provide a persistent link to its location on the internet. All DOI numbers begin with 10 and contain a prefix and suffix separated by a slash. The DOI is typically located on the first page of an electronic journal article. If there is no DOI, provide a stable URL (webpage address). To check if a link to a URL is stable, paste the link into the address bar of an Internet browser to make sure that works. If there is no stable URL for a journal or newspaper article, give the URL of the journal or database homepage instead.
The electronic version of a book that you can download to your computer, and read using a software program or a dedicated e-book device. You can often search the contents of e-books for keywords. Usually you will need to enter a username and password before you can do this, and that username/password combination is often your university username and password which uses the Shibboleth authentication system.
The whole number of copies of a book made from the same type setting. This means that all copies of an edition are the same. If minor changes and corrections are made in later printings this is called an impression. If more than minor changes are made then a new edition is published (the second or subsequent edition). It is important to make sure you reference the correct edition in your work; there is no need to specify a first edition, but any later ones need to be indicated. See also reprint.
A person who prepares a book for publication, usually a book with sections written by different authors. An editor may write some of the book (such as an introduction), but is not called the author because a number of people have been involved in writing.
The Library doesn't just buy journals in printed form to support your studies. It also has subscriptions or access to several thousand e-journals, where the articles from a printed version have been digitised and loaded online on the Internet (note: a few journals only appear electronically). E-journals often have the advantage that they can be viewed and printed off-campus. Usually you will need to enter a username and password before you can do this, and that username/password combination is often your university username and password, which uses the Shibboleth authentication system.
An abbreviation for the Latin et alia “and the others”. Used in references where there are many authors to save having to include them all. There are rules about when this can be used in APA.
An abbreviation for the Latin ibidem “in the same place”. Used in references and citations to refer to the last work cited, saving re-typing the author and title. You will usually find this in footnotes. Ibid is not used for APA at this University. See also op cit.
Usually found at the foot of the title page in a book, giving place, date, and publication information.
A periodical publication which consists of a number of articles written about a particular subject area. The emphasis is on communicating up-to-date-ideas and research to others within the field.
A non-serial work, complete in one part or set, usually on a narrowly defined single topic, e.g. a book or pamphlet (as opposed to a periodical).
An abbreviation for the Latin opere citato “in the work cited”. Used in references and citations to refer to a previous work cited, saving re-typing the author and title. You will usually find this in footnotes. Op cit is not used for APA at this University. See also ibid.
OSCOLA stands for the Oxford University Standard for Citation of Legal Authorities and is the referencing system adopted by University of Portsmouth Law Department. It is one of three referencing systems or styles, in use at the University, the others being APA and Vancouver
The numbering of pages in a document.
To put something read or heard into ones own words. The author of the original idea or work may still need to be cited and referenced. See also quotation.
An individual part or issue of a journal. A number of parts or issues make up a volume.
A process commonly used by academic journals to ensure quality control where an article is sent to a panel of experts for comment before being accepted (or rejected) for publication. Peer reviewers may recommend changes to an article to be made prior to publication.
A publication which appears at regular intervals, e.g. a journal or a magazine.
Presenting someone else’s words, ideas, or images as your own, i.e. without referencing them.
A version of a journal article that has been submitted to a journal, but not yet formally published, so may not have undergone peer review. Preprints are increasingly being found on the web. The term "in press" is used by APA for an article that has been submitted to a journal and accepted for publication, but has not been published.
A document or artefact produced during the historical period being researched.
Primary sources can be textual or visual. They include books, pamphlets, magazines and newspaper articles and conference proceedings published during the period being researched. Maps, ephemera such as advertisements, photographs, archival documents, museum artefacts and audio-visual resources such as newsreels may all be considered primary sources. They may be accessible in their original format or digitised. Exact definitions may vary in different subject areas, so it is advisable to seek advice from your lecturer to identify the most suitable primary sources to incorporate into an essay or dissertation.
The company that publishes a book or journal. The place of publication and the publisher are given for book references but are not usually given for journal references, e.g.
Edinburgh : Churchill Livingstone
London : Routledge.
Using the actual words from a document in your own work. Quotation is usually indicated by quotation marks (“ …” ) and page number(s) are always given in your in-text citation. A small amount of quotation (a few words) can be included in your text, but a larger amount is usually put on a new line and slightly indented (in these cases quotation marks are not usually used). See also paraphrase.
If all copies of an edition of a book are sold, then extra copies may be printed and this is called a reprint. A reprint may have a different cover but the text will be the same, so reprints need not be indicated in references.
See also impression.
Citing a work that you have discovered in another work but where you haven’t read the original.
For APA guidance see FAQ
For OSCOLA guidance see FAQ
An authentication system which allows you to use your network username and password (the ones given you to access university computers) to access remote electronic resources, rather than having to use a separate username/password for each different resource (also sometimes referred to as an institution login).
See Accessing Electronic Resources for more information.
Anything used to find information in order to produce a piece of work, usually books and journals but often web sites, images and other media.
URL (Uniform Resource Locator) is the technical term for a webpage address. URLs can change, for example if the material you are viewing is generated 'on-the-fly' using content management software. URLs from these sites may be only viewable at the time of retrieval. A stable URL, also known as a 'permament link' will not be generated 'on-the-fly' and is more likely to remain accessible. The Digital Object Identifier (DOI) standard is also used as a way to provide stable URLs. See also DOI.
The page at the beginning of a book which has full details of the title, author and publisher. The back of the title page also gives details of any editions, impressions, reprints and copyright date of the book. These details are needed for your bibliography/reference list. Note that sometimes the cover of a book differs from the title page – the title page is regarded as having the accurate details of that book.
One of the three systems or styles for producing bibliographic references used in the University. There are printed guides available and online versions of these on the University Library website.
We would like to gratefully acknowledge the use of the following when producing this glossary:
Dictionary of Library and Information Management (1997). Retrieved July 03, 2006, from xreferplus: http://www.xreferplus.com/entry/1041296
Glossary of Information Terms. Retrieved July 03, 2006, from Open University Web site : http://library.open.ac.uk/help/helpsheets/intglossary.html
Library glossary. Retrieved July 03, 2006, from Southampton Solent University Web site : http://www.solent.ac.uk/library/glossary/
Library glossary. Retrieved July 03, 2006, from Swansea University Web site : http://www.swan.ac.uk/lis/HelpAndGuides/LibraryJargon/
What do all those ‘library words’ mean : a Library glossary. Retrieved July 03, 2006, from University of Portsmouth Web site : http://www.port.ac.uk/departments/studentsupport/library/faq/glossary/