Book with single author [from Print source using APA 6th ed.]


The style for a book is a basic style. Other styles in this guide derive from it. The definition of a book is wider than some readers might suppose. For example, booklets can be regarded as books, despite their small size, if they otherwise have the same characteristics as books. An example of another style based on that for a book is that for a report, and indeed, if there is no series information, they will be the same.

Don't panic if you see several dates inside the book. The date you need to use is the one which matches the edition of the book that you're using. Ignore any dates that are just listed as reprints or impressions. Look on the book cover and see if it says e.g. Fourth edition (it should also say this on the title page inside the book). In this case all that you need to show in your reference in the reference list is the date for the 4th edition of the book (and give the edition after the title of the book, immediately before the page numbers). Search for the book on the library catalogue to check the details needed for the reference if you are unsure.

Use this format if you want to reference a book chapter in Moodle which is a copyright-cleared digital scan of the print version. Include [Scan from Moodle] to indicate the format. If you access a book or e-book via a link in Moodle, reference these sources in the usual way.

Standard Form

Author, Initials. (year). Title of book. Place of publication: Publisher.


Cullen, W. D. (1990). The public inquiry into the Piper Alpha disaster (Vol. 2). London: HMSO.

Gombrich, E. H. (1982). The image and the eye: Further studies in the psychology of pictorial representation. Oxford: Phaidon.

Saint, A. (1983). The image of the architect. New Haven: Yale University Press.

Street, J. (2011). Mass media, politics and democracy (2nd ed.). Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.


Book chapter in Moodle which is a copyright-cleared digital scan of the print version

Boba, R. (2009). Crime analysis with crime mapping (2nd ed.) [Scan from Moodle]. London: Sage.

Citation in Text

... was chaired by Lord Cullen. In total, 106 recommendations were made in the Cullen Report (Cullen, 1990, pp.387-399) ...

In his later work, Gombrich (1982, p. 123) takes the opposite approach ...

... review of the book (Saint, 1983, inside front cover) ...

There is a case for believing that some countries are unlikely to become full democracies (Street, 2011, pp. 146-149) in the near future ...