Academic journal article [from Print source using APA 6th ed.]


Make sure you understand the pattern of the journal - does it have a volume number, does it have a part number (restarting at 1 in each volume) or a running issue number which increases through each succeeding volume?

Use this format if you want to reference an article in Moodle which is a copyright-cleared digital scan of the print version. Include [Scan from Moodle] to indicate the format. If you access an article via a link in Moodle, reference this source in the usual way.

Standard Form

Author, Initials. (year). Title of article. Title of Journal, Volume number – if there is one (Issue number), start and end page numbers of article.


Guo, Z., Liu, T., Fedoroff, N., Wei, L., Ding, Z., Wu, N., (. . .), An, Z. (1998). Climate extremes in Loess of China coupled with the strength of deep-water formation in the North Atlantic. Global and Planetary Change, 18(3-4), 113-128.

Noguchi, T., Kitawaki, J., Tamura, T., Kim, T., Kanno, H., Yamamoto, T., & Okada, H. (1993). Relationship between aromatase activity and steroid receptor levels in ovarian tumors from postmenopausal women. Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 44(4-6), 657-660.

Popper, S. E., & McCloskey, K. (1993). Individual differences and subgroups within populations: The shopping bag approach. Aviation Space and Environmental Medicine, 64(1), 74-77.

Article in Moodle which is a copyright-cleared digital scan of the print version

Popper, S. E., & McCloskey, K. (1993). Individual differences and subgroups within populations: The shopping bag approach [Scan from Moodle]. Aviation Space and Environmental Medicine, 64(1), 74-77.

In press or preprint

Bouvier, B., Gruunberg, R., Nilges, M., & Cazals, F. (in press). Shelling the voronoi interface of protein-protein complexes reveals patterns of residue conservation, dynamics and composition. Proteins: Structure, Function, and Bioinformatics.

Citation in Text

Guo et al. focused their research on climate extremes (1998, p. 120) ...

Recent theories (Noguchi et al., 1993, p. 658) suggest that ...

Popper and McCloskey (1993, pp. 75-76) state that ...



  • An article accepted for publication in a journal, described as "in press" or a "preprint", but not yet published is treated differently. Use the format for a printed journal article, but instead of the year include (in press) and omit volume, part and page details, as these cannot be confirmed until the article is actually published.
  • If no date appears on the item you are trying to reference, insert (n.d.) where you would normally give the year.
  • If there is no identifiable author, begin your reference with the title of the article. Cite the first few words of the article title in the text of your work and use double quotation marks around the title.
  • For the reference in your reference list, include up to seven authors. For eight or more authors, include the first six authors' names, then insert an ellipsis ( . . . ), and add the last author's name.

Citing multiple authors in the text of your work:

  • With two authors both names should be listed in each citation e.g. (Duncan & Goddard, 2003, p. 99).

    With three to five authors, name all authors the first time, then use et al. (and others). For example: the first time it would be (Moore, Estrich, McGillis, & Spelman, 1984, p. 33) and subsequent references to the same publication would use (Moore et al., 1984, p. 33).

    For six or more authors, use et al. after the first author in all occurrences.

    Note that when the citation occurs naturally within the sentence "and" should be used before the final author. But when the citation is enclosed in brackets the ampersand (&) should be used.