Art work [from Audio visual source using APA 6th ed.]


This source is not covered by the APA style manual. Check with your lecturer before using this suggestion which is based on APA style.

An actual work of art (as opposed to a reproduction in a book or journal) may not be considered to be a recoverable source. For example, the person reading your work may be able to travel to Florence to see Botticelli's Birth of Venus in the Uffizi gallery, but it is not practicable to do so for the purposes of checking a reference. Therefore, unique works of art are better omitted from the reference list. Instead they may be cited in the text, with enough information to identify the work. This recognizes that there may be information discernable in the original which is not apparent in a reproduction: for example a photograph of a sculpture is a two-dimensional representation of a three-dimensional object; an A4 (or smaller) reproduction of a painting which may be three metres high cannot show all the detail.

Citation in Text

Not applicable


In Botticelli's Birth of Venus (housed in the Uffizi Gallery in Florence) the detail beneath the figure on the right shows ...

Rodin's Le penseur, now at the Musée Rodin in Paris, exhibits on the back of the figure ...