E-book with corporate author: different from print version [from Electronic source using APA 6th ed.]


Use this format where the authorship is not identified as being the responsibility of individuals, but a whole organisation, e.g. American Psychological Association, University of Portsmouth. In APA, if the publisher is the same as the corporate author, use Author in place of the publisher.

Some e-books which can be downloaded onto a computer or mobile device have different page numbering from the print version, e.g. e-books from the Project Gutenburg website, Kindle books, Apple iBooks etc. Many electronic sources do not provide page numbers. If paragraph numbers are visible, use them in place of page numbers (using the abbreviation para.), e.g. para. 582. Alternatively, cite the chapter or section, followed by the paragraph number (if appropriate) e.g. Chapter 4, para. 3). 

Whenever possible the URL you give should be a stable URL and link directly to the webpage itself. A stable URL, also known as a 'permalink' will not be generated 'on-the-fly' and is more likely to remain accessible. To check if a link to a URL is stable, paste the link into the address bar of an Internet browser to make sure that it works. The Discovery Service provides a permanent link known as a 'Permalink' for each item in its index, including those in HTML format.  To see the Permalink, click on the title of the item and look under Tools on the right-hand-side of the screen where you will see a Permalink link. Click on this link and the URL will be displayed for you to copy and paste into your reference. Although you must give the full web address (or URL) in your reference list, you do not show this in the body of your essay. Your in-text reference must match the start of the reference as it appears in your reference list. Use the author if your reference has one; otherwise use the first few words of the title.

Standard Form

Single author:
Author, Initials. (year). Title of book (Edition if later than first e.g. 3rd ed.)[e-book version if known]. Retrieved from web address

Multiple authors:
Author, Initials., Author 2, Initials., & Author 3, Initials. (year). Title of book (Edition if later than first e.g. 3rd ed.)[e-book version if known]. Retrieved from web address


Solicitors Regulation Authority (England and Wales). (2012). SRA handbook. Retrieved from https://www.sra.org.uk/solicitors/handbook/pdfcentre.page

Citation in Text

"These Rules are made on 22 June 2012 by the Solicitors Regulation Authority Board under sections 37" (Solicitors Regulation Authority (England and Wales), 2012, Section 1.1)


  • Where you have a document produced by an organisation and the organisation is commonly referred to by an abbreviation/acronym you should do the following:

In the in-text reference write out the name of the organisation in full the first time and give the abbreviation in square brackets e.g.

... clearly stated policy (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations [FAO], 2005, p. 24)

then subsequent in-text references can just use the abbreviation e.g.

... measures to improve food supplies (FAO, 2005, p. 26).

  • In the reference list, always spell out the name of the organisation in full e.g.

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. (2005). title of doc etc.

  •  The parent body precedes a subdivision e.g. University of Portsmouth, Centre for Coastal Zone Management.
  • If the online version refers to a print edition, include the edition number after the title inside brackets.  Otherwise, leave out this part of the reference.