E-book with no author: same as print version [from Electronic source using APA 6th ed.]


Use when there is no identifiable author or editor, personal or corporate. Do not use Anonymous, unless the book specifically designates the author as Anonymous. The title is placed in the author position in the reference, and italicised. This format can be adapted for other materials where there is no author or editor.

Many electronic sources do not provide page numbers. If paragraph numbers are visible, use them in place of page numbers (using the abbreviation para.), e.g. para. 582. Alternatively, cite the chapter or section, followed by the paragraph number (if appropriate) e.g. Chapter 4, para. 3). 

This format is for e-books with no author(s) or editor(s) which are facsimiles of the printed book. Examples are found in e-book collections such as Ebook Central (formerly ebrary and MyiLibrary), dawsonera, JISC Historic Books, EBSCOhost, Google Books, and Oxford Scholarship Online. E-books can be viewed online, and some can be downloaded onto a computer or mobile device using the Adobe Digital Editions or the Bluefire reader for example.

You will need to quote the DOI (Digital Object Identifier) if there is one; otherwise use the web address.  A DOI is a unique alphanumeric string assigned by a registration agency to identify content and provide a persistent link to its location on the internet. All DOI numbers begin with 10 and contain a prefix and suffix separated by a slash. If there is no DOI, give the web address (or URL) of the e-book. A URL (Uniform Resource Locator) is the technical term for a webpage address. URLs can change, for example if the material you are viewing is generated 'on-the-fly' using content management software. URLs from these sites may be only viewable at the time of retrieval.

Whenever possible the URL you give should be a stable URL and link directly to the webpage itself. A stable URL, also known as a 'permalink' will not be generated 'on-the-fly' and is more likely to remain accessible. To check if a link to a URL is stable, paste the link into the address bar of an Internet browser to make sure that it works. For books from online collections such as Ebook Central, MyiLibrary, dawsonera and Google Books, give the web address of the e-book collection homepage rather than the full URL of the e-book.

The Discovery Service provides a permanent link known as a 'Permalink' for each item in its index, including those in HTML format.  To see the Permalink, click on the title of the item and look under Tools on the right-hand-side of the screen where you will see a Permalink link. Click on this link and the URL will be displayed for you to copy and paste into your reference.

Although you must give the full web address (or URL) in your reference list, you do not show this in the body of your essay. Your in-text reference must match the start of the reference as it appears in your reference list. Use the author if your reference has one; otherwise use the first few words of the title.

Standard Form

E-book with DOI

Title of book (Edition if later than first e.g. 3rd ed.). (year). https://dx.doi.org/number of digital object identifier

E-book without DOI viewed online in Ebook Central (formerly ebrary and MyiLibrary), dawsonera etc.

Title of book (Edition if later than first e.g. 3rd ed.). (year). Retrieved from web address

E-book downloaded using Adobe Digital Editions, Bluefire etc.

Title of book (Edition if later than first e.g. 3rd ed.) [e-book version if known]. (year). Retrieved from web address



Hong Kong women in culture, business and travel. (2010). Retrieved from https://ebookcentral.proquest.com

Citation in Text

As there is no author to identify the item in the in-text citation, use the first few words of the title and italicise them

According to Hong Kong women (2010), "Hong Kong in general is known as a good place to do business" ...



  • When arranging the items in a reference list in alphabetical order, use the title words.
  • If the online version refers to a print edition, include the edition number after the title inside brackets.  Otherwise, leave out this part of the reference.