Conference paper: published online [from Electronic source using Vancouver]


This format applies to conferences, meetings and symposia.

If the proceedings are published regularly, treat them as a periodical (journal).
The format to be used is much like that of a chapter in an edited book. Note the date and place of the conference is given before the publication details as the date details are different.

Standard Form

Author(s) of paper and Initials. Title of paper [Internet]. In: Title of Proceedings; Year Month Days; conference location. Place of publication: Publisher; Publication date [cited year month day]. p.Start and finish pages. Available from: URL


Sakurai M, Munisi HI, Kakihara H, Sengoku S. The current status and value creation of unlisted Biotech Drug Discovery/Development Firms (Biotech DDFs) in Japan: A holistic approach [Internet]. In: Proceedings of PICMET ‘14 Conference: Portland International Center for Management of Engineering and Technology; Infrastructure and Service Integration; 2014 July 27-31; Kanazawa. New York: IEEE Explore; 2014 [cited 2016 May 16]. p.3612-20. Available from: http://ieeexplore.

Citation in Text

Remember this will be a running number at the first use of a reference. If the reference is re-used then repeat the number allocated. Keep your style constant, either parenthesis (number) throughout, or superscript number. Do not change between the two. If your department recommends a particular style then use that.

Enforcing security ........ (15)


Enforcing security ....15


  • Plain arabic pagination can be cut to the minimum possible so that pages 121-129 can be shortened to 121-9. Prefix letters can also be shortened, e.g. S121-9, but use 121A-129A if letters are used as suffixes.