Entry with no author in a reference book [from Electronic source using Vancouver]


Examples of dictionary or encyclopaedia/encyclopedia entries are found in collections such as Credo Reference.

Don't panic if you see several dates inside the book. The date you need to use is the one which matches the edition of the book that you're using. Ignore any dates that are just listed as reprints or impressions. Look on the book cover and see if it says e.g. Fourth edition (it should also say this on the title page inside the book). In this case all that you need to show in your reference in the bibliography/reference list is the date for the 4th edition of the book (and also give the edition after the book title). Search for the book on the library catalogue to check the details needed for the reference if you are unsure.

Standard Form

Title of reference book [Source]. Nth ed.[if appropriate]. Place of publication: Publisher; Year. Title of entry [cited Year Month Day]. Available from: URL


British Pharmacopoeia online (ebook)

Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). The British Pharmacopoeia, 2016: Monographs: Medicinal and Pharmaceutical Substances: Chalk [Internet]. London: The Stationary Office; 2015 [cited 2016 May 16]. Available from https://www.pharmacopoeia.com/bp-2016/monographs/chalk.html?published-date=2015-08-03

Merriam-Webster medical dictionary [Internet]. Springfield (MA): Merriam-Webster Incorporated; c2015. Concussion; [cited 2016 May 16]. Available from: http://www.merriam-webster.com/ medical/concussion

Citation in Text

Remember this will be a running number at the first use of a reference. If the reference is re-used then repeat the number allocated. Keep your style constant, either parenthesis (number) throughout, or superscript number. Do not change between the two. If your department recommends a particular style then use that.

Jones states that "Empty gelatin capsules are designed to have a moisture content between 13 and 16%".(8 p304 )

The moisture content of empty capsules is designed to be between 13 and 16% (8)


Jones states that "Empty gelatin capsules are designed to have a moisture content between 13 and 16%".8 (p304)


  • When giving pagination shorten wherever possible - do not repeat page numbers unless they are suffixed by a letter
  • pages 125-127 should be given as 125-7 but 125A-127A would remain as 125A-127A
  • Omit editor information if it is not given