Non-governmental organisation publication [from Electronic source using APA 6th ed.]


If documents found on the internet are clearly facsimiles of books in print format they should be referenced as e-books. Useful clues to look for are ISBNs or a PDF format with clear publication details and original covers. This format covers reports from non-governmental organisations. Where a publication is not presented as a single document, but broken down into separate HTML pages or PDF files, it is better to treat these as web pages, and reference them individually.

Many electronic sources do not provide page numbers. If paragraph numbers are visible, use them in place of page numbers (using the abbreviation para.), e.g. para. 582. Alternatively, cite the chapter or section, followed by the paragraph number (if appropriate) e.g. Chapter 4, para. 3). 

Where there is a choice of format, the PDF version may be easier to reference, and the orginal pagination can be used to pinpoint sources in the in-text citation. If in doubt, use the standard form below.

Provide a description of the form inside brackets when it would assist the reader in identifying less typical types of sources (e.g. brochures, press releases, fact sheets etc.). Otherwise omit this.

Webpages can be volatile and subject to unannounced change. Therefore, it is important include the web address (or URL) for the webpage you accessed, as it may not be at that location when your work is assessed. A URL (Uniform Resource Locator) is the technical term for a webpage address. URLs can change, for example if the material you are viewing is generated 'on-the-fly' using content management software. URLs from these sites may be only viewable at the time of retrieval.

Whenever possible the URL you give should be a stable URL and link directly to the webpage itself. A stable URL, also known as a 'Permalink' will not be generated 'on-the-fly' and is more likely to remain accessible. To check if a link to a URL is stable, paste the link into the address bar of an Internet browser to make sure that it works. If there is no stable URL for the item, give the homepage of the website e.g. for reports from the Passport database.

Although you must give the full web address (or URL) in your reference list, you do not show this in the body of your essay. Your in-text reference must match the start of the reference as it appears in your reference list. Use the author if your reference has one; otherwise use the first few words of the title.

Standard Form

Non-governmental organisation author:

Author. (year). Title. (Series Title and number - if there is one). Retrieved from web address

Named author(s):

Author, Initials. (year). Title. (Series Title and number - if there is one). Retrieved from web address

No author(s): 

Title. (Series Title and number - if there is one). (year). Retrieved from name of organisation website: web address


ActionAid. (2015). Putting ideas to work: Youth design their own futures. Retrieved from

Hayes, B. (2012). Counter-terrorism, 'policy laundering', and the FATF: Legalising surveillance, regulating civil society. Retrieved from the Statewatch website:

Citation in Text

Hayes states that development and social inclusion are key to preventing terrorism (2012, p.6).

This report focuses on workshops which enable priorities for youth employment to be established (ActionAid, 2015, p.7).


  • Include the name of the publishing organisation in the retrieval information when the publisher is not identified as the author.
  • If there is no identifiable author, begin your reference with the title of the report. Cite the first few words of the title in the text of your work and italicise them.